1. Cathedral (significance of Architecture)


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Research



Citation

Hennessey, William J. "Cathedral." World Book Student. World Book, 2009. Web. 10 Nov. 2009.

"BBC - h2g2 - The Layout of European Churches and Cathedrals." BBC - Homepage. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Nov. 2009. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A3420505>.

"Cathedral Architecture." Oracle ThinkQuest Library . N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Nov. 2009. <http://library.thinkquest.org/10098/cathedrals.htm>.

"File:Paris-notre-dame-facade.jpg - Wikimedia Commons." Wikimedia Commons. N.p., n.d. Web. 8 Nov. 2009. <http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Paris-notre-dame-facade.jpg>.

Richard, Mike. "Photo of the Moment: Inside Notre Dame, Lyon." Vagabondish. N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Nov. 2009. < http://www.vagabondish.com/photo-of-the-moment-inside-notre-dame-lyon/>.

Research strategy

For this particular project, we needed to locate all three of our sources. We used the background information from class to figure out what search terms to use (“gothic cathedrals”) and entered them first into Google. We scanned through the sites to find information about the layout and background of cathedrals. We first selected the BBC website because we knew it would be a reputable source and because the titles of the webpage were related to the information we needed. After reading through the site, we had a better idea of the information that would be useful in the research process. We navigated to the library website and used the “General Reference” selection box on the databases page to select the World Book Encyclopedia database. We entered the search terms “cathedral layout” and located our database website. Finally, in order to find a third website, we entered the search terms “cathedral architecture” and scanned the websites to find the last website source.

Research notes

Research Notes
http://www.worldbookonline.com/student/article?id=ar100080&st=cathedral
· Headquarters of a diocese
· Bishop’s throne is in cathedral
· Kathedra= Greek word for seat
· Only believed in by some denominations
· Center of town’s public life
o Markets and meetings were held there
· Plan
o Not specified religiously
§ Western religions: build cathedrals in medieval shape
· In design of a cross
o West end: entrance, bottom of the cross
o Long aisle: nave, long stem of cross
o Semicircular end: apse, top of cross
o Walkway around curved end: ambulatory, top of cross
o Side aisles: extend from entrance, arms of the cross, transepts
· Worshippers meet in nave and transepts
· Bishop stands in one side of apse
· Historical Importance
o 1000-1500: greatest era of cathedral building
§ Filled with carvings, paintings, and stained glass windows
· “visual encyclopedia”
o Medieval worshippers could not read
· Famous Cathedrals
o Cathedrals are mostly found in Europe (France, etc.) but North American cathedrals were modeled after
http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/h2g2/A3420505
· The Layout of European Churches and Cathedrals
o Most Western Christian churches have similar architecture
o Modern churches may have simpler architecture
§ The Shape
· Designed in shape of cross
o Longer axis: east-west
o Altar: eastern end
§ Under stained-glass window
o Entrance: western end or shorter arm of cross

§ The Crossing
· Center of cross shape
· Under central tower, steeple, or dome
o Traditionally, tower will have bell for announcements
· North and south of crossing: shorter arms of cross
o Transepts- sometimes hold small chapels
§ Often dedicated to specific saint
§ The Nave
· Largest part of church
· Navis: Latin for ship
o Vaulted ceilings are similar to hull of ship
· Where congregation sits during church
· North and south of seating: aisles
· Rows of windows towards ceiling
o Windows + walkway = clerestory
· Ornate false windows
o Openings called triforium
· Font: stone used for baptism, located on western end of nave
· Public nave separated from eastern end of church
o Priests direct services behind ornate screen
· Choir: through screen, accessible only to clergy
§ The Choir
· Where church choir sits during service
· Ornately carved stalls
· One on each side of church
o Two sections:
§ Cantoris
· Cantor: priest who sings during parts of service
§ Decani
· Same side of the building as the dean
o Alternate sections of psalms, cantoris sings lower section
· North side of building: pulpit and bishop’s throne
· Altar rail: where communions are held
· Altar
o Table representing the Last Supper
§ Center for all worship

http://library.thinkquest.org/10098/cathedrals.htm
· Symbol of God, power, respect
· Built of limestone and mortar
· Art- stain glass, murals
· Gothic style
· “solidly built”
Gargoyles common decoration

Summary



A cathedral is the main place of worship for Roman Catholic observing people. It is a representation of God’s Presence. The cathedral is the headquarters of a diocese, or district of a church. During the Dark and Middle Ages, Churches were built with thick walls, thin windows, and a fortress like façade. It would be viewed as the place of security, instead of a religious center as it is viewed upon today. Throughout the Renaissance Age, churches evolved into a place of art, beauty, and inspiration. Churches sizes depended on the wealth of the city in which it was being built. They often had intricate artwork and sculpture work on their insides and outsides. They are often built as in the shape of the cross, to represent Jesus’ crucifixion. In the west front, the people are seated. On the east end, the sermons are held and the choir is seated. The altar is also placed here. Churches often have bells on top, mostly because of tradition as a place of meeting.

Cathedrals are the place at the center of Christian religion, as they are where followers congregate to worship. The cathedral (or church) is meant to represent God’s body on earth, and for that reason, the church is considered a holy building. During the Middle Ages, the strong walls of the church promised safety from the riots outside. Later, in the Renaissance period, it became more representative of unity and togetherness for Christians. Architecturally, the cathedral’s cross shape represents the belief in the crucifixion of Jesus Christ. In the more modern Gothic style of Western Christianity, cathedrals are designed to be large and grand; this symbolizes the all-powerful nature of God. In this style, the basic idea is to make the worshipper feel small and reaffirm the sense of community. Conclusively, cathedrals are important to Christian religion because they symbolize God’s presence on earth and promote unity in the congregation.





2. Nativity

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Research



Citation
Pictures
Nativity of Jesus. Photograph. Catholic in Japan. Web. <http://catholicinjapan.wordpress.com/2008/12/25/joy-to-the-world-the-lord-is-come/>.

Nativity of Jesus. Photograph. Wikipedia. Wikipedia, 7 Nov. 2009. Web. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nativity_of_Jesus>.

Nativity of Jesus. Camberley Decorative & Fine Arts Society. Web. <http://www.camberleydfas.org.uk/lectures%202010.htm>.
Article
Myers, Robert J. "Christmas." World Book Student. World Book, 2009. Web. 9 Nov. 2009.
- This database generally explains a background of Christianity and what Nativity means to the Christian faith.

All About Jesus Christ. 2002. Web. 9 Nov. 2009. <http://www.allaboutjesuschrist.org/the-nativity.htm>.
- This site is more for those who know a little something about Christianity and the bible to begin with. If I did not know the little I do know about the religion, I would have probably found myself quite lost. Also, this site explains the Nativity of Jesus Christ through the personal and the biblical view.

The Story of the Nativity. Top Marks, 1998. Web. 9 Nov. 2009. <http://www.topmarks.co.uk/christianity/nativity/nativity1.htm>.
- I found this site extremely helpful; it was pretty much a slideshow with both words and pictures describing the nativity of Jesus Christ. It’s very simple to understand however, its complex enough to have more than 2 or so words per slide




Research strategy

Out of the three sources, my database was easiest to find, I simply had to go to the MICDS library website and type in ‘nativity’. However, for the websites, when I plainly typed in ‘nativity’ many things came up. So, I switched it up between, ‘Nativity of Jesus Christ’ and ‘Nativity of Our Lord’ and ended up finding the two sites above.



Research notes

Myers, Robert J. "Christmas." World Book Student. World Book, 2009. Web. 9 Nov. 2009.
- This database generally explains a background of Christianity and what Nativity means to the Christian faith.

All About Jesus Christ. 2002. Web. 9 Nov. 2009. <http://www.allaboutjesuschrist.org/the-nativity.htm>.
- This site is more for those who know a little something about Christianity and the bible to begin with. If I did not know the little I do know about the religion, I would have probably found myself quite lost. Also, this site explains the Nativity of Jesus Christ through the personal and the biblical view.

The Story of the Nativity. Top Marks, 1998. Web. 9 Nov. 2009. <http://www.topmarks.co.uk/christianity/nativity/nativity1.htm>.
-
I found this site extremely helpful; it was pretty much a slideshow with both words and pictures describing the nativity of Jesus Christ. It’s very simple to understand however, its complex enough to have more than 2 or so words per slide


Summary



'Nativity' refers to the accounts of the birth of Jesus of Nazareth in the gospels. The story that goes along with the picture talks about the time that Mary is due to give birth. She and her husband, Joseph, travel from their home (Nazareth) to register in the Census of Quirinius. To be counted, Joseph and Mary had to travel to Bethlehem, which is where Joseph's family originated. When they arrive in Bethlehem, they find that there is no room in any of the inn's. One innkeeper offers the couple a stable to stay in. It is there that Mary gives birth to Jesus, and places the newborn in a manger. An angel then comes and tells them, "to you is born this day in the city of David a Savior, who is the Messiah, the Lord". This is shown in the picture by the light that is shining down on Jesus, the newborn.

Faith has always been an important part in a functioning society and its importance to people for various reasons; some like to feel safe and guided while others look to faith/religion as a backbone. Some people view faithfulness as not only a guidance in life but a promising afterlife. When people hear stories such as the Nativity of Jesus Christ, it gives an idea and makes things more real to a person. Pictures, such as the ones above give people a visual of their faith and provide a sense of belonging and dedication.




3. Crucifixion

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Jesus'_Crucifixion.png
The Crucifixion of Jesus Christ
bust_of_Jesus_on_the_Cross.png
Jesus Christ on the cross
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Another interpretation of Jesus Christ on the cross

Research


Citations:

-“The crucifixion of Jesus.” All about Jesus Christ. 2002. November 11, 2009. <http://www.allaboutjesuschrist.org/crucifixion.htm.>

-Callan, Terrance D. "Jesus Christ." World Book Student. World Book, 2009. Web. 11 Nov. 2009.

-
“Crucifixion” apu.edu. April 16 2002. November<http://www.apu.edu/infocus/2002/03/crucifixion/>

-Jews and the Body of Christ, by Robert C. StaceyJewish History © 1998 Springer. <http://www.jstor.org/stable/20101321?seq=4&Search=yes&term=jesus&term=crucifixion&term=christ&list=hidsearchUri=%2Faction%2FdoBasicSearch%3FQuery%3Dcrucifixion%2Bof%2Bjesus%2Bchrist%26wc%3Don%26dc%3DHistory&item=1&ttl=843&returnArticleService=showArticle&resultsServiceName=doBasicResultsFromArticle>

-"The Crucifixion of Jesus." Bible.ca. Unknown. November 5, 2009. <http://www.bible.ca/d-crucifixion-of-Jesus.htm>

-Sahil Nagpal. "Crucifixion." November 10, 2008. Online Image. TopNews. November 6, 2009. <http://www.topnews.in/files/crucifixion.jpg>

-Shayne Subong Dizon. "Jesus On Cross Crucifixion." April 7, 2009. Online Image. BlogPress. November 6, 2009. <http://yenz24.files.wordpress.com/2008/09/jesus_on_cross_crucifixion-full.jpg>

-Mike Swalm. "Crucifixion." October 4, 2006. Online Image. Artchive. November 6, 2009. <http://www.artchive.com/artchive/e/eakins/eakins_crucifixion.jpg>
“The Gale Group” Crucifixion of Jesus. May 10 2004. November 11, 2009 <http://find.galegroup.com/srcx/retrieve.do?subjectParam=Locale%252528en%25252C%25252C%252529%25253AFQE%25253D%252528su%25252CNone%25252C11%252529crucifixion%252524%257E%2529_2&contentSet=GBRC&sort=Relevance&tabID=T001&sgCurrentPosition=0&subjectAction=VIEW_TOPIC_TREE&prodId=SRCCE-1&searchId=R2&currentPosition=9&userGroupName=sain62671&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&sgHitCountType=None&qrySerId=Locale%28en%2C%2C%29%3AFQE%3D%28ke%2CNone%2C11%29Crucifixion%24&inPS=true&searchType=BasicSearchForm&displaySubject=&docId=EK1631003364&docType=GBRC>


Strategies:
For our crucifixion project, Jack and I only used a handful of sources, First, we used 2 of the MICDS database sites for some of the basics on the crucifying of Jesus. Second, we used Google. Jack and I found the majority of these to be helpful. They ended up being some of our key sites. Our main key words that we used were, crucifixion, Jesus, the crucifixion of Jesus, Jesus on the cross, and Jesus Christ. One strategy that became very helpful is that we tried not to be on the same site at once. That way we could cover more of the internet faster. That actually worked to our advantage because we could go through more material in the least amount of time possible. However, this may have gotten us through faster, but we had to be careful of not doubling back to the same sources that the other person had been to.

Research Notes:
Jesus Christ- For the early followers of Christianity was the Lord Savior.
He was believed to be king of the Jews who would bring peace and prosperity.
Jesus was born of the virgin mary
At age 12 started to preach to congregations
At age 30 Jesus had selected twelve apostles or disciples
From age 30 to 34 he gathered large grouds to preach to and produce miracles to.
Jesus converted followers by his teachings or parables, and miracles by healing the sick, handicapped, and the poor.
At age 34 he was betrayed by an apostle named Judas
Judas betrayed him by kissing him on the cheek to show the roman soldiers which one was Jesus Christ
Jesus went to Pontius Pilot to find out what his punishment should be.
Since it was a Jewish holiday the Jews could decide whether they wanted Jesus to die or a mass murderer to die
The Jews chose Jesus
He would die by crucifixion
*crucifixion: execution by being nailed or tied to an upright cross and left to hang there until death
*Jesus was the "King of Jews"
*To “wash one's hands of it” means to refuse to take responsibility for an action or event
*traditional crucifixion ties people to the cross, not traditional to nail them to the cross
*Roman soldiers placed a crown of thorns on the head of Jesus and mocked him, saying, “Hail, King of the Jews.”
*He was made to carry a wooden cross up the hill of Calvary near Jerusalem, where he was nailed to the cross and was placed between two thieves, who were also crucified.
*Shortly before his death, he said, “ Father, forgive them, for they know not what they do.
*After Jesus died on the cross, his followers placed his body into a tomb.

Summary




Crucifixion, execution by being nailed or tied to an upright cross and left to hang there until dead. It was a very brutal and cruel way to die. Jesus was condemned by his fellow Jews as a false Messiah and turned over to the Roman governor Pontius Pilate to be crucified. Jesus had told his disciples that he would sacrifice his life so that believers' sins might be forgiven. They put him up on the cross and nailed his hands and feet in place. This picture is representing the crucifixion of the Christian’s lord and savior Jesus Christ. It is showing Jesus Christ nailed on the cross with his mother, the Virgin Mary, lying at his feet. The Virgin Mary has fallen to the ground, overcome by grief.

The crucifixion of Jesus Christ was the most religious symbol of Christianity. Jesus Christ accepted his fate for the good of man. By dying on the cross he wiped the sins of all of the people on the earth. All diseases and handicaps were cured. The Christians who followed Jesus proclaimed that truly he was the son of god. This single moment started Christianity. Today the symbol of Christianity is Jesus on the cross. The actual cross that Jesus was crucified on was lost around 400 ad after being destroyed. No one knows the exact cause to its destruction. There have been many reproductions of the cross as a symbol. The symbol its self has not changed over the past 1979 years of its existing.