1. Goddess Durga


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-Santiko,, Hariani. "The goddess Durga in the East-Javanese period." histrory resource center. 18 Oct. 1997. 10 Sep. 2009 <galenet.galegroup.com/servlet/HistRC/hits?docNum=A20749160&tab=2&locID=sain62671&origSearch=true&hdb=ALL&t=RK&s=1&r=d&items=0&secondary=true&o=&sortOrder=&n=10&l=dJ&sgPhrase=false&c=2&tabMap=82&bucket=iac&SU=goddess+durga>.

-we found this page by using a database found on the MICDS library website

-"Goddess Durga as Slayer of the Buffalo-Demon Mahisha (Mahishasuramardini), The [Nepal] (1986.498)". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/08/ssh/ho_1986.498.htm (October 2006)

-we found this sit by using the search term "goddess Durga" indian iconography ; .org

-"The Goddess Durga Killing the Buffalo Demon, Mahisha (Mahishasuramardini) | All | Asian Art | Collection Database | Works of Art | The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York." The Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York: metmuseum.org. 8 Sep. 2009 <http://www.metmuseum.org/works_of_art/collection_database/asian_art/the_goddess_durga_killing_the_buffalo_demon_mahisha/objectView.aspx?&OID=60005542&collID=6&vw=0

-durga was created to destroy the all powerful buffalo demon Mahisha
-it was created with the combined powers of all the gods together
-she is the sixteen armed slayer
-The objects in her right hands included a spear, arrows, sword, chisel, hammer, thunderbolt, elephant goad, and a war discus
-The objects in her left hands include a shield, bow, bell, mirror, and noose
-Even as his toes are being bitten by its lion he still smiles serenely
This photo depicts the goddess Durga. He was created by all the gods for one purpose and that was to kill the buffalo demon Mahisha. Entrusted with all the powers and weapons of all the other gods she was able to destroy the demon. this relates to the religion because it kept the sanctity of the gods and the religion the gods represent.

2.Lord Shiva

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[Photograph. The darkpsde. 2007. Web. 10 Sept. 2009. <http://www.thedarkpsyde.com/images/Shiva_Nataraja_2.jpg>.

Photograph. Flickr. Origamiwolf, 20 June 2006. Web. 10 Sept. 2009. <http://www.flickr.com/search/?q=shiva+lord+of+the+dance>.

"Shiva as Lord of the Dance (Nataraja) [Tamil Nadu, India] (1987.80.1)". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. http://www.metmuseum.org/toah/ho/07/sss/ho_1987.80.1.htm (October 2006)

Arts Connected. 28 Feb. 2009. Web. 10 Sept. 2009. <http://www.artsconnected.org/resource/984/shiva-nataraja-lord-of-the-dance>.

"Nataraja." World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras. ABC-CLIO, 2009. Web. 10 Sep. 2009. <http://www.ancienthistory.abc-clio.com>.


Additional Resources:
- typed "Lord of the Dance" into bing.com
- searched "Shiva Lord of the dance" on google.com
- went to MICDS Library then to database and used ABCCLIO: Ancient History, searched "nataraja"

Research Notes
- in Sanskrit, Nataraja means "King of the dancers", used when Shiva is presented as Lord of the Dance
-Sanskrit is, the language of the Vedas and of Hinduism
-Nataraja's dance symbolizes the destruction and creation in the universe
- often represented by a four- armed Shiva, four arms represent the four directions
- in order to understand the concept of Nataraja, one must understand dance, much like yoga
- evolved during the Chola dynasty (ca. 860–1279) of southern India
- while he danced his upper right hand held the hand drum, which was the vibrating sound of creation
- his lower right hand motioned abhaya which means protecting and preserving
- his upper left hand held the fire of destrucition
- his right foot trampled a dwarf figure
- while dancing, Shiva raised his left leg and pointed it to "provide refuge for the troubled soul"

[The Lord Shiva is a very important icon and symbol for the country of India, and throughout Asia, as well. Fine arts were one of the most prized aspects of Indian life, and it made each country unique. The Lord Shiva is no exception. He is a very interesting looking God in the pictures, to say the least. Shiva is the Lord of Dance, and through symbols and dance, he showed that he was a very important and elite god, one that should be recognized and worshiped. While Shiva danced, he made many gestures by doing different things with his hands and feet. In his upper right hand, he held a drum that made the main vibrating sound of creation. This drum is called the damaru. With his lower right hand, he made the gesture abhaya, which removed fear, protected, and preserved those who worshiped him. In his upper left hand, Shiva held the agni, the consuming fire that destroyed all in it's path. This symbolizes his power and tells what happens to those who do not worship him. In his ecstasy from dancing, he lifted his left leg, making a gesture known as gaja hasta. This leg provides refuge for the troubled soul. With his right foot, Shiva stomped and crushed a small, dwarf like creature. This symbolizes what happens to something that tries to lead the human soul astray. The dwarf like creature is called apasmara purusha. Finally, encircling Shiva is a flaming body halo, called prabhamandala. This shows the boundaries of the cosmos, and that Shiva is within the cosmos. As you can see, the Lord Shiva was a God of many gestures and symbols, all of which are important. These paintings and sculptures are all important because they help ancient culture to stay alive and be remembered. Also, art was one of the first things that ancient civilizations had. It was what they were known for, how they distinguished their country from other ones nearby. Most of the art of Shiva was made during the periods when the most growth of the civilization was happening. They are important in order to help us understand what India and Asia was going through during those times. We must keep this ancient art intact, so that it can be enjoyed for years to come. Without it, Asia and India may not be what they are today.]

3. Vishnu

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The woman that is often depicted by Vishnu's side is Chakrapurusha; a female personification of his battle mace.

Nikhari. Vishnu. Photograph. Flickr. 22 June 2008. Web. 9 Sept. 2008. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/13631886@N04/2600431260/>.
"Vishnu." World History: Ancient and Medieval Eras. ABC-CLIO, 2009. Web. 9 Sep. 2009. <http://www.ancienthistory.abc-clio.com>.
"Vishnu." 1997. Smithsonian Freer Gallery of Art and Aurthur M. Slacker Gallery. September 8 2009. <http://www.asia.si.edu /pujaonline/puja/vishnu.html >.
" Vishnu as Para Vasudeva-Narayana." Metropolitan Museum of Art
Zbycho, Arjuna _. Lord Vishnu. Photograph. Flickr. 18 Jan. 2009. Web. 9 Sept. 2009. <http://www.flickr.com/photos/arjuna/3206784913/>.
Picture Bibliography:

How we located our additional sources

Database Article:
  • I went to the MICDS library and I looked under databases.
  • I went down to the History/Social Studies search bar, and I selected ABCCLIO Ancient World History.
  • I then searched the word "Vishnu"
  • I chose the first article that appeared in the list

Website (Katie):

Research Notes
-He took forms of many different animals to fight off evil.
-He became:
  • Matsya the fish. From this, he saved the humans from a flood.
  • Kurma, the tortoise. He helped gods churn the ocean to obtain the drink of immortality.
  • Varaha, the boar. He raised the earth out of the ocean.
-He was known as the preserver of the earth.
-He is the god of family values and home values.
-He is known for the four things that he carries with him:
  • discus, club, conch, and lotus
  • discus and club- symbolizes his weapons and strength
  • lotus- fertility and regeneration
  • conch- is used in spiritual and sacred rituals in India
-His blue skin represents spirituality and other worldliness

Vishnu as Para Vasudeva–Narayana, also known as just Vishnu is one of the most worshiped gods in Hinduism. Not only is he extremely powerful and influential, but he represents values of the home. Some of those include family values, peace, stability, and order. In artwork of him there are always four symbols with him- discus, club, lotus, and conch. The discus and club symbolizes his strength and the weapons that he holds in his power. The lotus represents fertility and regeneration, and the Conch is used in sacred spiritual traditions and rituals in India. In most pictures or sculptures of Vishnu, he is shown with blue skin. His blue skin represents his spirituality (his other worldliness) and his godly power. People of the Hindu religion praise Vishnu because he is known as "the preserver". He helped restore the world when it was full of danger. He fought off the evil forces by transforming into different avatars (Listed Above). In art, he is often depicted riding on either the serpent "Shesha", or the Garuda bird. "Shesha" represents the earth, and he is resting on top of it to preserve it.

4. Great Living Chola Temples

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"World Heritage" Great Living Chola Temples. Sep. 10 2009. Sep. 10 2009. http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/250
"The Great Living Temples" The Great Living Temples. Sep. 2 2007. Sep.10 2009. http://www.cruisingindia.com/document/tamil-nadu/cities-in-tamil-nadu/thanjavur/things-to-do-in-thanjavur/the-great-living-chola-temples-india-20060306195354/
"South East Asia" Temples. Sep. 3 2003. Sep. 10 2009. http://find.galegroup.com/srcx/retrieve.do?subjectParam=Locale%2528en%252C%252C%2529%253AFQE%253D%2528su%252CNone%252C7%2529temples%2524&contentSet=GSRC&sort=Relevance&tabID=T001&sgCurrentPosition=0&subjectAction=DISPLAY_SUBJECTS&prodId=SRCCE-1&searchId=R1&currentPosition=9&userGroupName=sain62671&resultListType=RESULT_LIST&sgHitCountType=None&qrySerId=Locale%28en%2C%2C%29%3AFQE%3D%28SU%2CNone%2C7%29temples%24&inPS=true&searchType=BasicSearchForm&displaySubject=&docId=EJ2105230055&docType=GSRC

How We Found Our Sources
- We typed in the given address that gave us to look at the caption of the picture you gave us.
-We went to google.com and searched The Great Living Chola Temples. Then we noticed a site that had all the background information on the The Great Living Temples.
- We went to the MICDS database and under gale groups searched the Great Living Chola Temples then when nothing popped up we searched indian temples. We then found the South East Asian Temples.

Research Notes
  • The Chola Temples were constucted by kings in the 11th and 12th centuries
  • The architecture of the temples allowed the buildings to with stand the test of time.
  • Brihadisvara Temple at Tanjavur is approximately 70 meters tall.
  • Its the biggest temple in the world
  • The walls and ceiling are covered with murals.
  • The temples were used to worship Vishnu, Shiva, and other Hindu gods
The Great Living Chola Temples are constant reminders of the great Hindu culture. Built by kings during the 11th and 12th centuries these temples were built all along the Chola empire. The temples were ancient skyscrapers made to impress travelers. The temples were also made to convince people to convert to Hinduism. The height of the temples were used to help Hindus feel closer to the heavens. The Hindus wanted to show their appreciation to Vishnu, Shiva, and the other Hindu gods by building these magnificent temples. The temples exterior and interior are covered with decorative design and religious sculptures. The Hindus had spared no expense or effort to make the temples the best that they could be.